Tripoli Agreement Summary
The 2001 Tripoli Agreement cited the 1997 ceasefire agreement the 1976 Tripoli Agreement and the 1996 Jakarta Agreement between the Philippine government and the MNLF, as well as an OIC resolution calling on the government and MILF to “immediately end armed hostilities and continue peace talks to find a peaceful solution to the problem in Mindanao.” Marcos` son and namesake said the peace agreement with the MNLF under the auspices of the Organization of Islamic Cooperation and the Libyan head of state was “a success.” The 1976 Tripoli Agreement was signed on 23 December 1976 in Tripoli, Libya, by Carmelo Z. Barbero, representing the Philippine government, and Nur Misuari of the Moro National Liberation Front.  The agreement established autonomous administrative units for Muslims in the southern Philippines, the formation of an autonomous government, the Sharia justice system and special security forces, and compliance with a ceasefire.  The autonomous region should have its own economic system, including an Islamic bank.  Ferdinand Marcos then implemented the agreement by creating two autonomous regions (instead of one) composed of ten provinces (instead of thirteen). This led to the collapse of the peace pact and the resumption of hostilities between the MNLF and Philippine government forces.   In the same year, the Moro Islamic Liberation Front, which separated from the MNLF in 1977, began informal discussions with Ramos` government. However, these were not followed, and milF began to recruit and establish camps and become the dominant Muslim rebel group. Joseph Estrada`s government has called for a firm stance against it; Gloria Macapagal Arroyo tried to sign a peace agreement with him, but it was declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court of the Philippines.
 The Tripoli Agreement not only symbolized mindanao`s first autonomous region, but symbolized the highly indeterminate, permanent and circular nature of the Mindanao peace process. The agreement also marked the beginning of the internationalization of internal conflict resolution in the Philippines, an abandonment of the so-called ASEAN (Association of South Asian Nations) convention on non-interference in the internal conflicts of member states. The new strategy included the facilitation and mediation of international bodies such as the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC) and the good offices of a foreign government, the Libyan government. The 1976 Tripoli Agreement is considered a “mother convention” on the autonomy of the Moro people, as it was the first time that autonomy was granted to a revolutionary group fighting for independence, over parts of Mindanao and Palawan that once took place under the sultanates of Sulu and Maguindanao and Lanao del Surs Pat in Pangampong. After more than 17 years of painstaking negotiations with the Philippine government (1996-2013), MILF appeared to have reached several peace agreements, including a new Tripoli agreement, signed in 2006. All agreements that have brought progressive benefits to MILF can be included in two important agreements: the Bangsamoro Framework Agreement (FAB) signed in 2012 and the Comprehensive Bangsamoro Agreement (CAB), signed two years later in 2014.