Multilateral Environmental Agreements (Meas)
Between 1857 and 2012, 747 multilateral agreements on the environment were concluded.  After the Intergovernmental Conference in Stockholm in 1972, the creation of international environmental agreements multiplied.  The United Nations has made MMAs popular, most MMAs have been implemented since 1972 at the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment (also known as the Stockholm Conference).  The Stockholm Declaration was adopted by the 113 countries attending the conference and was the first major universal document in an environmental issue.  A detailed table of international environmental agreements, to which the EU is already a party or signatory, has been drawn up. The action programme also contains a horizontal priority objective, which aims to help the EU more effectively address international environmental and climate challenges. It recalls that the Union intends to achieve good results in terms of accession to multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs) and calls on the EU and its Member States to participate proactively in international negotiations on new and emerging issues. Global environmental issues that MEAs are expected to address include biodiversity loss, the adverse effects of climate change, ozone depletion, hazardous waste, organic pollutants, marine pollution, trade in endangered species, destruction of wetlands, etc. Since the beginning of the negotiations, discussions have focused on the scope of the negotiating mandate (including the definition of specific trade commitments) and the possible outcomes of the negotiations.
At the same time, members also began to share their national experiences in negotiating and implementing trade measures nationally under multilateral environmental agreements. An international environmental agreement, or sometimes an environmental protocol, is a kind of treaty of international law that allows them to achieve an environmental objective. In other words, it is an “intergovernmental document that is designed as legally binding and is primarily aimed at preventing or managing the human impact on natural resources.”  In addition to examining the link between specific trade commitments contained in environmental agreements and WTO rules, the negotiations also examined the procedures applicable to THE MEA secretariats and the WTO`s regular information exchange committees. The EU has already ratified many international environmental agreements, whether at the global level (multilateral agreements negotiated under the auspices of the United Nations) and at the regional level (for example. B within the framework of the UNITED Nations Economic Commission for Europe or the Council of Europe) and at the sub-regional level (for example. B for the management of seas or cross-border rivers). Global political systems, differences and conflicts are obstacles to the development of environmental protocols. First, maintaining sovereignty means that no country can be forced to participate, but is simply invited to participate. Therefore, as French says, “international law has the force of moral evocation, but few real teeth.”  Second, the North-South conflict can block cooperation and provoke conflict. The countries of the world`s South, considered the poor, generally regard the countries of the North, the rich, as the need to take responsibility for environmental degradation and to effect significant changes in their way of life, both of which the North considers reasonable.
The South maintains that the North already had the opportunity to develop and to have already been heavily polluted during its industrial development. ACCORDS are interstate agreements that can take the form of a “soft law” that establishes non-binding principles, which parties are required to abide by when taking action to resolve a given environmental issue, or “hard rights” that define legally binding measures to achieve an environmental objective.